Have you been experiencing fatigue, changes in weight, or hair loss?
These may sound like common signs of motherhood, but it could be an indication that you have a thyroid issue.
January is National Thyroid Awareness Month, so we wanted to take this opportunity to write about these often undiagnosed thyroid issues that are extremely common during pregnancy and postpartum.
What does the thyroid do?
The thyroid is a butterfly shaped gland in the lower neck that regulates energy production and the speed of every chemical reaction in all cells. It produces thyroid hormones that play key roles in many functions in our body, from maintaining body temperature and regulating our mood, to supporting our skin, hair health, and fertility. Our thyroid health is involved across many of our body systems, including our metabolic, endocrine, nervous, and cardiovascular systems.
When your thyroid gland is inflamed or not functioning properly, it can lead to symptoms of overproduction (hyperthyroidism) or -- more commonly -- underproduction (hypothyroidism) of thyroid hormones.
Common symptoms of thyroid dysfunction include unexplained weight change, feeling fatigued or foggy, mood changes, or sensitivity to extreme temperatures. Many of these symptoms often overlap with pregnancy and postpartum, which is why it is important to be aware of them and see if you are at risk for thyroid issues.
The following are common risk factors for developing thyroid issues
Women - For reasons that are unclear, women are 5-8 times more likely to develop thyroid issues
Type 1 diabetes
Family history of thyroid issues
Nutrient deficiencies, especially iodine and/or selenium
Chronic stress, which leads to overworked adrenals and weakening of your immune system [1,2]
Thyroid issues commonly develop during pregnancy and postpartum
During pregnancy, 10-17% of women can experience thyroid issues. Why? Because the needs for thyroid hormones increase by 50% in order to meet the demands of a growing baby (especially to support healthy brain development) in addition to your own metabolic needs. Until your baby can produce its own, it relies on your thyroid hormones, which can often lead to an overtaxed thyroid gland, especially if you have a mild but undiagnosed thyroid issue. In these cases, you may experience increased symptoms of hypothyroidism after becoming pregnant. These imbalances in thyroid hormones can lead to complications including anemia, preeclampsia, premature birth, low birth weight, and miscarriage.[3,4,5]
One common cause of thyroid issues is iodine deficiency. Iodine is a crucial nutrient for your thyroid health because it is one of the two building blocks of your thyroid hormones.
During pregnancy, the recommended daily amount for iodine increases by over 50% from 150 to 220 mcg/day, and studies indicate that a substantial portion of pregnant women in the United States are iodine insufficient. Since your baby depends entirely on your thyroid hormones, an increase in iodine intake is important for proper growth and development . Iodine intake remains important during the postpartum period, especially for those who are breastfeeding. Exclusively breastfed babies rely entirely on your iodine levels for healthy development. However, studies indicate that almost half of breastfeeding mothers produce breast milk that is low in iodine .
During postpartum, having a healthy and well functioning thyroid gland is crucial for maintaining energy, producing breast milk, supporting your mental health, and for regulating fertility for future pregnancies.
Postpartum thyroiditis, which refers to thyroid abnormalities that develop within a year of birth, is extremely common, affecting over 20% of new mothers. It is also more prevalent in women with type-1 diabetes. While thyroid function typically resumes between 12-18 months postpartum, 20-40% of women are susceptible to developing hypothyroidism permanently .
In many cases, it can be difficult to diagnose thyroid issues after birth because many of the symptoms are similar to what a new mom typically experiences: fatigue, depression, difficulty losing weight, hair loss.
This is why if you experience any symptoms, it is important to rule out thyroid issues through blood work.
Lab tests for thyroid issues
While many providers only check for TSH and T4 levels, getting the full panel is extremely beneficial, especially for those who are pregnant or planning for a pregnancy. Why? Because studies show that up to 50% of women who have elevated antithyroid antibodies in the first trimester of pregnancy experience postpartum thyroiditis .
Ask your provider for the following tests:
Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb)
Thyroglobulin Antibodies (TgAb)
How to support a healthy thyroid
Get lab work done regularly, especially if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant.
Take a high-quality multivitamin like our Prenatal, Postnatal & Nursing Support that includes iodine, zinc, selenium, iron, vitamin D, and B vitamins.
Of the 223 types of prenatal multivitamins available in the United States, only 51% contain any iodine . According to 2011–2014 NHANES data, 72.2% of pregnant women took dietary supplements, but only 17.8% of them took one that contained iodine.
While 75% of breastfeeding women took a dietary supplement, only 19% of them took an iodine-containing product .
Eat foods rich in selenium (brazil nuts, liver, tuna), zinc (oysters, liver, meat, nuts and seeds), vitamin A (liver, butter, egg yolk, sweet potatoes, carrots), iron (grass-fed meat, organ meats, clams, dark leafy greens), vitamin D (fatty fish, eggs, grass-fed butter), and B-vitamins (eggs, liver, sardines, clams).
Ensure that you are getting enough iodine (at least 250mcg during pregnancy) - Iodine is vital to thyroid function and is crucial for breastfeeding because iodine intake predicts iodine levels in breastmilk. Taking a natural iodine-rich supplement like our Sea Moss Complex, which combines wildcrafted sea moss, kelp, and bladderwrack to support your thyroid health, mood, immunity, and energy. Seafood, seaweed, eggs, and dairy products are also good food sources.
Eat foods rich in essential fatty acids, which are important for hormone production. Increase your intake of cold-water fish, fish oil, flax seeds, cod liver oil. Our Omega 3 DHA & EPA contain 1,200 mg of high-quality fish oil.
Get more sleep - It’s hard to do as a mother, I know, but prioritizing rest as much as possible is beneficial for your physical and mental health.
Avoid inflammatory foods - Sugar, trans fat oils, processed foods, and any foods that you are sensitive to can lead to increased inflammation in your body, which can affect thyroid function.
Support your adrenal glands - Stress can affect many body systems, so doing what you can to minimize stress and support your adrenal glands is beneficial. You can take our Organic Ashwagandha, an adaptogenic herb that has been proven to decrease cortisol levels and assist your adrenals. Engaging in meditation, regular exercise, and having a supportive community can also help reduce your stress.
There are a lot of complex processes involved with our thyroid, so always consult a specialist if you have concerns or questions. Addressing thyroid abnormalities early, especially if you are planning for pregnancy, is important to prevent complications that could arise, and being aware of any issues can help your recovery and postpartum.
We understand that through all stages of motherhood, your body has heightened needs for nutrients.
That’s why we have a wide selection of products to support your health through preconception, pregnancy, and postpartum.
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Kharrazian, D. Why do I still have thyroid symptoms? When my lab tests are normal. Elephant Press Books, 2010.
Bauman, E., Friedlander, J. Therapeutic Nutrition. Penngrove, CA. Bauman College, 2015.
Abalovich M, Amino N, Barbour LA, Cobin RH, De Groot LJ, Glinoer D, et al. Management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;92 Suppl:s1-47
Krassas GE, Poppe K, Glinoer D. Thyroid function and human reproductive health. Endocr Rev 2010;31:702-55.
Melse-Boonstra A, Jaiswal N. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy, infancy and childhood and its consequences for brain development. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Feb;24(1):29-38.
Pearce EN, Leung AM, Blount BC, Bazrafshan HR, He X, Pino S, Valentin-Blasini L, Braverman LE.
Breast milk iodine and perchlorate concentrations in lactating Boston-area women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 May;92(5):1673-1677.
Stagnaro-Green A. Approach to the patient with postpartum thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2012) 97:334–42. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-2576
9. Leung AM, Pearce EN, Braverman LE 2009 Iodine content of prenatal multivitamins in the United States. N Engl J Med 360:939–940.
Gupta PM, Gahche JJ, Herrick KA, Ershow AG, Potischman N, Perrine CG. Use of iodine-containing dietary supplements remains low among women of reproductive age in the United States: NHANES 2011-2014. Nutrients 2018, 10, 422; doi: 10.3390/nu10040422.