Have you been experiencing fatigue, changes in weight, or hair loss?

These may sound like common signs of motherhood, but it could be an indication that you have a thyroid issue.

January is National Thyroid Awareness Month, so we wanted to take this opportunity to write about these often undiagnosed thyroid issues that are extremely common during pregnancy and postpartum.

What does the thyroid do?

The thyroid is a butterfly shaped gland in the lower neck that regulates energy production and the speed of every chemical reaction in all cells. It produces thyroid hormones that play key roles in many functions in our body, from maintaining body temperature and regulating our mood, to supporting our skin, hair health, and fertility. Our thyroid health is involved across many of our body systems, including our metabolic, endocrine, nervous, and cardiovascular systems.

When your thyroid gland is inflamed or not functioning properly, it can lead to symptoms of overproduction (hyperthyroidism) or -- more commonly -- underproduction (hypothyroidism) of thyroid hormones.

Common symptoms of thyroid dysfunction include unexplained weight change, feeling fatigued or foggy, mood changes, or sensitivity to extreme temperatures. Many of these symptoms often overlap with pregnancy and postpartum, which is why it is important to be aware of them and see if you are at risk for thyroid issues.

The following are common risk factors for developing thyroid issues

  • Women - For reasons that are unclear, women are 5-8 times more likely to develop thyroid issues

  • Celiac disease

  • Type 1 diabetes

  • Recent pregnancy

  • Family history of thyroid issues

  • Nutrient deficiencies, especially iodine and/or selenium

  • Chronic stress, which leads to overworked adrenals and weakening of your immune system [1,2]

Thyroid issues commonly develop during pregnancy and postpartum

During pregnancy, 10-17% of women can experience thyroid issues. Why? Because the needs for thyroid hormones increase by 50% in order to meet the demands of a growing baby (especially to support healthy brain development) in addition to your own metabolic needs. Until your baby can produce its own, it relies on your thyroid hormones, which can often lead to an overtaxed thyroid gland, especially if you have a mild but undiagnosed thyroid issue. In these cases, you may experience increased symptoms of hypothyroidism after becoming pregnant. These imbalances in thyroid hormones can lead to complications including anemia, preeclampsia, premature birth, low birth weight, and miscarriage.[3,4,5]

One common cause of thyroid issues is iodine deficiency. Iodine is a crucial nutrient for your thyroid health because it is one of the two building blocks of your thyroid hormones.

During pregnancy, the recommended daily amount for iodine increases by over 50% from 150 to 220 mcg/day, and studies indicate that a substantial portion of pregnant women in the United States are iodine insufficient. Since your baby depends entirely on your thyroid hormones, an increase in iodine intake is important for proper growth and development [6]. Iodine intake remains important during the postpartum period, especially for those who are breastfeeding. Exclusively breastfed babies rely entirely on your iodine levels for healthy development. However, studies indicate that almost half of breastfeeding mothers produce breast milk that is low in iodine [7].

During postpartum, having a healthy and well functioning thyroid gland is crucial for maintaining energy, producing breast milk, supporting your mental health, and for regulating fertility for future pregnancies.

Postpartum thyroiditis, which refers to thyroid abnormalities that develop within a year of birth, is extremely common, affecting over 20% of new mothers. It is also more prevalent in women with type-1 diabetes. While thyroid function typically resumes between 12-18 months postpartum, 20-40% of women are susceptible to developing hypothyroidism permanently [8].

In many cases, it can be difficult to diagnose thyroid issues after birth because many of the symptoms are similar to what a new mom typically experiences: fatigue, depression, difficulty losing weight, hair loss.

This is why if you experience any symptoms, it is important to rule out thyroid issues through blood work.

Lab tests for thyroid issues

While many providers only check for TSH and T4 levels, getting the full panel is extremely beneficial, especially for those who are pregnant or planning for a pregnancy. Why? Because studies show that up to 50% of women who have elevated antithyroid antibodies in the first trimester of pregnancy experience postpartum thyroiditis [8].

Ask your provider for the following tests:

  • TSH

  • Free T4

  • Free T3

  • Reverse T3

  • Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb)

  • Thyroglobulin Antibodies (TgAb)

How to support a healthy thyroid

  • Get lab work done regularly, especially if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant.

  • Take a high-quality multivitamin like our Prenatal, Postnatal & Nursing Support that includes iodine, zinc, selenium, iron, vitamin D, and B vitamins.

  • Of the 223 types of prenatal multivitamins available in the United States, only 51% contain any iodine [9]. According to 2011–2014 NHANES data, 72.2% of pregnant women took dietary supplements, but only 17.8% of them took one that contained iodine.

  • While 75% of breastfeeding women took a dietary supplement, only 19% of them took an iodine-containing product [10].

  • Eat foods rich in selenium (brazil nuts, liver, tuna), zinc (oysters, liver, meat, nuts and seeds), vitamin A (liver, butter, egg yolk, sweet potatoes, carrots), iron (grass-fed meat, organ meats, clams, dark leafy greens), vitamin D (fatty fish, eggs, grass-fed butter), and B-vitamins (eggs, liver, sardines, clams).

  • Ensure that you are getting enough iodine (at least 250mcg during pregnancy) - Iodine is vital to thyroid function and is crucial for breastfeeding because iodine intake predicts iodine levels in breastmilk. Taking a natural iodine-rich supplement like our Sea Moss Complex, which combines wildcrafted sea moss, kelp, and bladderwrack to support your thyroid health, mood, immunity, and energy. Seafood, seaweed, eggs, and dairy products are also good food sources.

  • Eat foods rich in essential fatty acids, which are important for hormone production. Increase your intake of cold-water fish, fish oil, flax seeds, cod liver oil. Our Omega 3 DHA & EPA contain 1,200 mg of high-quality fish oil.

  • Get more sleep - It’s hard to do as a mother, I know, but prioritizing rest as much as possible is beneficial for your physical and mental health.

  • Avoid inflammatory foods - Sugar, trans fat oils, processed foods, and any foods that you are sensitive to can lead to increased inflammation in your body, which can affect thyroid function.

  • Support your adrenal glands - Stress can affect many body systems, so doing what you can to minimize stress and support your adrenal glands is beneficial. You can take our Organic Ashwagandha, an adaptogenic herb that has been proven to decrease cortisol levels and assist your adrenals. Engaging in meditation, regular exercise, and having a supportive community can also help reduce your stress.

Get help

There are a lot of complex processes involved with our thyroid, so always consult a specialist if you have concerns or questions. Addressing thyroid abnormalities early, especially if you are planning for pregnancy, is important to prevent complications that could arise, and being aware of any issues can help your recovery and postpartum.

We understand that through all stages of motherhood, your body has heightened needs for nutrients.

That’s why we have a wide selection of products to support your health through preconception, pregnancy, and postpartum.

Sign up for our list to find out about new products and exclusive deals!

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Not sure what you need? Try our 3-minute online Wellness Quiz to get a personalized nutrition report, product recommendations, and a discount code!


  1. Kharrazian, D. Why do I still have thyroid symptoms? When my lab tests are normal. Elephant Press Books, 2010.

  2. Bauman, E., Friedlander, J. Therapeutic Nutrition. Penngrove, CA. Bauman College, 2015.

  3. Abalovich M, Amino N, Barbour LA, Cobin RH, De Groot LJ, Glinoer D, et al. Management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;92 Suppl:s1-47

  4. Krassas GE, Poppe K, Glinoer D. Thyroid function and human reproductive health. Endocr Rev 2010;31:702-55.

  5. Melse-Boonstra A, Jaiswal N. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy, infancy and childhood and its consequences for brain development. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Feb;24(1):29-38.

  6. Pearce EN, Leung AM, Blount BC, Bazrafshan HR, He X, Pino S, Valentin-Blasini L, Braverman LE.

  7. Breast milk iodine and perchlorate concentrations in lactating Boston-area women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 May;92(5):1673-1677.

  8. Stagnaro-Green A. Approach to the patient with postpartum thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2012) 97:334–42. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-2576

  9. 9. Leung AM, Pearce EN, Braverman LE 2009 Iodine content of prenatal multivitamins in the United States. N Engl J Med 360:939–940.

  10. Gupta PM, Gahche JJ, Herrick KA, Ershow AG, Potischman N, Perrine CG. Use of iodine-containing dietary supplements remains low among women of reproductive age in the United States: NHANES 2011-2014. Nutrients 2018, 10, 422; doi: 10.3390/nu10040422.

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Updated: Jan 11

When I coached my clients I got these questions a lot: "Do I really need to take supplements?" or "I eat a healthy diet, why do I need to supplement?" I don't blame them because before I became a nutritionist, I was thinking the same thing!

While eating nutrient-dense foods is always the best way to get your daily nutrients, this is most often not enough. Especially considering how being a mother impacts your nutrient stores and ability to replenish them. It is extremely difficult for the average mother to be able to plan, cook, and eat perfectly balanced, nutrient-rich meals every single day. Having that expectation is simply unrealistic, and places an unnecessary burden on ourselves and mothers in general. After extensive research on the nutritional status of mothers before, during, and after pregnancy, it is clear that mothers need more than just "healthy food." That is why I created my line of supplements, probiotics, and superfoods so that mothers can get help replenishing their depleted nutrient stores and can feel better and not have the nagging worry that they are not "getting enough" to provide for their babies and themselves.

When people ask me why they should take a supplement, I usually respond with these reasons:

1. Mothers go through incredible physical, emotional, and mental transformations during pregnancy that leaves them nutritionally depleted. 

In fact, over 80% of mothers are considered to be nutrient depleted as a result of pregnancy, birth, and lactation. It's no surprise that as a woman grows an ENTIRE little human (sometimes more than one!) inside of her body, she needs many more nutrients compared to the pre-pregnancy period. It takes a LOT of energy to not only grow a baby, but also to birth a baby and create breast milk to nourish your baby and to reverse all the changes of pregnancy back to a non-pregnant state. While many pregnant and postpartum women try their best to eat nutritious foods, unfortunately, the vast majority of people are unable to meet the nutritional demands of pregnancy and lactation without supplemental support. Take iron, for example. In the U.S., over 24% of women experience anemia during pregnancy, often due to the fact that many women have insufficient stores even before their pregnancy begins (WHO, 2010, Turner, 2003). An iron-deficient diet, an increase of 50% in iron needs, poor iron absorption in the gut, and blood loss from menstruation before pregnancy are some common reasons why women can't keep up with the increase in demand for iron during pregnancy (Abbaspour, 2014). 

Another example is folate, an essential nutrient required for cell division during pregnancy and the synthesis and secretion of breast milk during postpartum, which leads to a decline in its concentration from mid-pregnancy until 3-6 months after birth. In fact, 20% of women in developed countries have been reported to have low serum folate levels 6 months after delivery (King, 2003).

Like iron and folate, many of the nutrients required for pregnancy and lactation are mobilized from maternal stores. So when you start from an already depleted state, it becomes nearly impossible to increase your nutrient intake without taking supplements, especially as the nutritional demands increase throughout your pregnancy and continue to remain high during lactation. 

The changes that occur to your body during and after birth can also contribute to your nutrient depletion. Your entire digestive system shifts and as a result, your microbiome is affected and the digestive process (and therefore the absorption of nutrients in your gut) can be slow and inefficient. While many people view the postpartum period to sometimes be as short as 6 weeks after delivery, the truth is, nutrient depletion can last for much longer. A study by Janet King concluded that it takes approximately 18 months to replete nutrient stores after pregnancy and therefore that mothers with closely-spaced pregnancies are at increased risk of adverse maternal and baby outcomes (King, 2003). 

Pregnancy and postpartum is a truly unique time that places extra stress on your body, so you want to make sure that you are getting the most important nutrients to support your pregnancy and birth, including folate, vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, choline, B-vitamins, iron, and collagen. Taking a multivitamin in addition to single nutrient supplements is often the best way to meet the elevated nutritional requirements during this time.

2. Many health issues are linked to nutrient deficiencies.

When we don't have the necessary vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that our body needs, the biochemical processes in our bodies are unable to work efficiently, which applies chronic stress on our bodies. For example, we all know that omega-3s are key in baby's brain development, but it does a lot more than that. Deficiencies in omega-3 fatty acids like DHA have been linked to auto-immune conditions, postpartum depression, anxiety, and pregnancy complications like preterm labor and hypertension. Low folate during pregnancy has been linked to higher risks of neural tube-related birth defects. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to osteoporosis, pregnancy complications like gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, and data from the CDC Nutrition Report shows that almost 90 million people do not meet the standard required levels of vitamin D (Serrallach, 2018, Nichols, 2018, CDC). Vitamin B12 deficiency, which has been reported in 3.4 million women in the U.S., can lead to anemia, depression, nerve damage, dementia, and increased risks for neural tube birth defects, preterm delivery, and miscarriage (Nichols, 2018, CDC).

For mothers, many of these health risks can have serious consequences for their health and the health of their babies. Conditions like postpartum depression, which is diagnosed in 10-15% of mothers, can be especially crippling (NIMH). While there are many factors that result in mental health struggles, for many mothers, there's often a nutritional component that compounds the issue. Aside from Omega 3's, deficiencies in vitamin D, calcium, iron, selenium, and zinc have also been linked to negative impacts on mood (Leung, 2009).

Addressing nutrient deficiencies through supplementation can be the first step towards feeling better, both physically and mentally.

It makes sense, doesn't it? The more nutrients we can fuel our body with, the more enzymatic processes go smoothly, and the more energy we can get and have.  

3. The nutrient content of the soil in the U.S. has declined greatly over the last few decades. 

Due to modern farming practices, which greatly impacts the soil's natural processes, the soil in the U.S. has lost almost half of its original mineral and vitamin content over the last few decades. A 2004 study which looked at over 40 crops from 1950-1999 found that nutrients including protein, calcium, potassium, iron, vitamin C and riboflavin have all declined significantly, some by up to 38% (Davis, 2004). The decline in nutrient-dense soil has a negative impact on the nutrient content of food, which decreases the amount of bioavailable nutrients for us to absorb into our bodies.

That means that compared to a decade ago, the same vegetables are providing us with less nutrients, so we need to get the extra nutrients elsewhere to make up for it. 

4. The longer you supplement, the better your long term health is. 

One study comparing supplementation of mothers for 2 months vs. 5-7 months after birth between consecutive pregnancies concluded that the group that supplemented for longer had a higher mean hemoblogin status at the onset of their second pregnancies. Their babies also had higher birth weights and lengths and a lower risk of low birth weight compared to the 0-2 month supplementation group, demonstrating that longer supplementation periods between pregnancies can improve the outcome of subsequent pregnancies even among reasonably well-nourished women. We also have to keep in mind that as we age, our bodies naturally decline in nutrient stores. This is especially true for collagen, which declines to about 50% by the time we are 40. While many consider collagen to be helpful for skin health, it is also an important nutrient for your pelvic floor, gut, joints and scar healing.

5. Your babies benefit from your supplementation

You're not the only one who benefits from the nutrients your body absorbs from supplementation, especially if you breastfeed your baby. In a 2012 study on probiotic supplementation, women who were given probiotics during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy and throughout lactation produced breastmilk with double the levels of immunoprotective

compounds. The rate of eczema in their infants during the first 2 years of life was also

decreased for that group of women (15%) compared to 47% for those who did not receive the probiotic supplement (Pelucchi, 2012). Other studies have shown that probiotic supplementation can protect against infant colic, spitting up and overall digestive discomfort. (Nichols, Lily. 2018).

The effects of Omega 3 supplementation in breastfeeding mothers' babies has been studied in depth. Getting enough DHA during pregnancy and lactation can improve behavior, attention, focus, and learning in children. Other benefits that have been found by having adequate DHA during pregnancy is a reduced risk of allergies in infants and a positive influence on immune development.

It's clear that to support the high nutritional demands of pregnancy, birth, and lactation, and recovering postpartum, mothers need the help of supplements.

But knowing what kind of supplements to take can be incredibly overwhelming, especially in a market that is saturated with choices. 

Here are a few things to remember:

  • Getting your levels tested by your primary care doctor is crucial to knowing exactly which nutrients you are deficient in. Having hard data on how deficient you are can help you make decisions on what to supplement with.

  • What matters is the quality and form of the supplements, in addition to the dose. It is a waste to take supplements if they provide nutrients that are unable to be absorbed by our bodies. That is why looking at the specific forms of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients is important and why all of our supplements were created using bioactive forms (like folate, D3, chelated iron) that are most easily absorbed by the body. Many of our supplements also include ingredients that enhance absorption, like our Organic Ashwagandha with black pepper, and our Vitamin D3 with K2. Sourcing from pasture-raised and organic animals also ensures that the nutrient content is as high as possible. 

  • In addition to single nutrient supplements, look for a multivitamin that contains vitamin A, all the B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, Alpha Lipoic Acid, choline, inositol, boron, calcium, chromium, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, selenium, and zinc.

Not sure where to start?

Take our free Wellness Quiz to get a personalized nutrition report based on your answers about your pregnancies, diet, lifestyle, symptoms and other areas of concern. In your results, you will find out what supplements you could benefit from taking. 

For high-quality products that use the most bioavailable forms of nutrients, explore our online shop. You can find a wide range of products, from prenatal and postnatal multivitamins, potent probiotics for women, to a delicious golden milk mix with collagen (Golden Collagen)!

Did you take supplements during your pregnancy and postpartum? What was recommended to you to take? Tell me in the comments!


De Benoist B, McLean E, Egli I, Cogswell M, editors. Geneva: WHO Press, World Health Organization; 2008. WHO/CDC. Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005: WHO global database on anaemia; p. 40.

Turner RE, Langkamp-Henken B, Littell RC, Lukowski MJ, Suarez MF. Comparing nutrient intake from food to the estimated average requirements shows middle- to upper-income pregnant women lack iron and possibly magnesium. J Am Diet Assoc 2003;103:461–6 

Abbaspour N, Hurrell R, Kelishadi R. Review on iron and its importance for human health. J Res Med Sci. 2014;19(2):164–174.

King JC. The Risk of Maternal Nutritional Depletion and Poor Outcomes Increases in Early or Closely Spaced Pregnancies. The Journal of Nutrition. 2003;133.

Serrallach, O. (2018). The Postnatal Depletion Cure: A Complete Guide to Rebuilding Your Health and Reclaiming Your Energy for Mothers of Newborns, Toddlers, and Young Children. New York, NY: Grand Central Publishing.

Nichols, L. Real food for pregnancy: the science and wisdom of optimal prenatal nutrition. United States: Real food for Pregnancy; 2018.

Second Nutrition Report (2012) [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2012. Available from:

Postpartum Depression Facts [Internet]. National Institute of Mental Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Available from:

Leung BM, Kaplan BJ. Perinatal Depression: Prevalence, Risks, and the Nutrition Link—A Review of the Literature. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2009;109:1566–75.

Davis DR, Epp MD, Riordan HD. Changes in USDA Food Composition Data for 43 Garden Crops, 1950 to 1999. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2004;23:669–82.

Pelucchi C, Chatenoud L, Turati F, Galeone C, Moja L, Bach J-F, Vecchia CL. Probiotics Supplementation During Pregnancy or Infancy for the Prevention of Atopic Dermatitis. Epidemiology. 2012;23:402–14.

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Updated: Jan 11

You may have heard of maternal depression, but what about maternal depletion? Maternal depletion describes the condition where mothers are unable to recover nutritionally, hormonally, and emotionally after birth. 50% or more of postpartum women are suspected to have nutrient deficiencies that contribute to this condition.  

Pregnancy takes a significant toll on your body.

A mother’s folate, zinc, vitamin B12, vitamin B9, iron, iodine, selenium stores are used throughout pregnancy to provide the necessary nutrition for her growing baby (Serralach, 2018, King, 2003).

By the end of pregnancy, the placenta passes a whopping 7 grams of fat a day to the developing baby, which leads to the progressing depletion of a mother’s essential fat stores.

Studies have indicated a link between low omega-3 essential fatty acid levels and higher incidences of maternal depression (Hibbeln, 2002). As a result, mothers are left feeling exhausted, fatigued, and with what many call “mommy brain” or “baby brain,” which describes the forgetfulness, poor concentration, and general fogginess that is associated with the postpartum period. 

A mother with maternal depletion may experience any of these symptoms:

  • Exhaustion

  • Fatigue

  • Falling asleep without meaning to

  • Not feeling rested after sleeping

  • Brain fog

  • Loss of self-esteem

  • Loss of libido

  • Feeling overwhelmed and unable to cope

  • Feeling guilt or shame

What are the causes?

A combination of factors contribute to maternal depletion:

  • Short intervals between pregnancies (less than 6 months) that do not allow enough time for recovery from birth and lactation have been linked to an increase in the risk of negative outcomes for both mom and baby (King, 2003, Hibbeln, 2002).

  • Chronic sleep deprivation from caring for a newborn. Many women also do not have the necessary support to engage in self-care.

  • The trend in delaying starting families has associated health risks, including a higher incidence of multiples, which places more burden on the mother’s body. 

  • Nutrient-poor food. Research indicates that the mineral content in U.S. soil has been significantly depleted due to modern farming practices. That means the food we eat is not as nutritious as it was generations ago. 

  • Lack of support for postpartum women. Mothers often suffer silently from postpartum depression, anxiety, and isolation because of high societal expectations to “do it all.”

How long does it last?

The length of time that mothers experience maternal depletion largely depends on their ability to replenish their nutrient stores and support themselves in the postpartum period.

Research has indicated that it can take up to 18 months for the body to restore its nutrients after birth (King, 2003).

Unfortunately, if maternal depletion isn’t addressed and a new mom isn’t allowed to fully recover from the demands of pregnancy and birth, the aftereffects can last for years (sometimes up to 10 years!) after a baby is born (Serrallach, 2018). 

What should you do to recover from maternal depletion?

An important first step in recovery is replenishing the macro and micronutrients in your body through a conscious diet and supplementation. Having your doctor run blood tests to check your levels is a great way to determine which nutrients you are most deficient in, but the following are the most commonly deficient in postpartum women. Regaining these vital nutrients can help regain some of your energy.

  • Take a DHA supplement to help repair the nervous system and the brain, and to improve mood and cognitive function. Mother Nutrient has an Omega 3 DHA & EPA supplement that provides high levels of DHA and EPA, which can not only help a mother regain depleted stores but can also support her baby’s brain development. 

  • Take a high quality multivitamin. Mother Nutrient also offers a comprehensive Prenatal/Postnatal and Nursing Support supplement that contains 20 essential vitamins, minerals, trace elements, and other nutrients that are important for the mothers. Only active forms of vitamins are used, which means they are easily absorbed and gentle on the body. 

  • Up your intake of iron, zinc, vitamin B12, vitamin C, and vitamin D, all of which tend to decline during pregnancy. (Serrallach, 2018, King 2002)

The following are recommended food sources for these nutrients:

  • Support your gut microbiome. Your gut health is linked to many aspects of your health, including your brain health, immunity, and digestion. Taking probiotics to increase, heal, and diversify your gut microbiome will help you absorb and use nutrients better to regain your health. 

  • Improve sleep - Changing the number of hours of sleep may be challenging, especially when your baby is little, but you can shift your actions leading up to bedtime to optimize the quality of sleep you’re getting. Stay off screens, use low light, and create a calming environment that is dark and quiet. 

  • Get support - whether it’s through asking family or friends, hiring a babysitter, a house cleaner, a therapist, or a nutritionist to improve your emotional and physical well-being. You can’t have too much of it!

Mother Nutrient is here to be your support too.

We offer unique, holistic recommendations for lifestyle, diet, and supplements to improve your preconception, prenatal, and postpartum healing and self-care.

Start by taking our free Wellness Quiz to find out how we can help! You will get a customized nutrition report, as well as recommendations for specific supplements based on your results. Take the quiz here

Did you know about or experience maternal depletion? Share in the comments below!  


1. Serrallach, O. (2018). The Postnatal Depletion Cure: A Complete Guide to Rebuilding Your Health and Reclaiming Your Energy for Mothers of Newborns, Toddlers, and Young Children. New York, NY: Grand Central Publishing.

2. King, J. C. (2003). The Risk of Maternal Nutritional Depletion and Poor Outcomes Increases in Early or Closely Spaced Pregnancies. The Journal of Nutrition, 133(5). 

3. UNFPA(1989) State of World Population 1989. Investing in Women: The Focus of the Nineties. United Nations Population Fund.

4. Hibbeln, J.R. (2002). Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mothers' milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a cross-national, ecological analysis. J Affect Disord., 69(1-3):15-29

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Content found on this website is not considered medical advice. Please consult with a physician before making any medical or lifestyle changes.

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